Scientific References


Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, mediterranean, or low-fat diet. New England Journal of Medicine, 2008

Effects of low glycemic diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss. Journal of American Medical Association, 2004

Adiposity as compared with physical activity in predicting mortality among women. New England Journal of Medicine, 2004

A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on high blood pressure. New England Journal of Medicine, 1997

Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control. Journal of American Medical Association, 2003

Effect of comprehensive therapeutic lifestyle changes on prehypertension. American Journal of Cardiology, 2008

Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on insulin sensitivity and the systemic inflammatory response in human subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 2010

Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet

Probiotics improve outcomes after roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A prospective randomized trial. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 2009

Reduction in the incidence of type-2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. New England Journal of Medicine, 2002

Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. New England Journal of Medicine, 2011

Prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. New England Journal of Medicine, 2001

Adherence to a mediterranean diet and survival in a greek population. New England Journal of Medicine, 2003

Effects of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004

Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly european men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004

US Food and Drug administration, section 5(b) of the Orphan Drug Act: Medical food is “a food which is formulated to be consumed under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements, based on recognized scientific principles, are established by medical evaluation.”

Double-blind, placebo controlled trial examining the effects of RIAA/Acacia supplementation on insulin homeostasis. Functional Medicine Research Center, 2006

Enhancement of a modified mediterranean-style, low glycemic load diet with specific phytochemicals improves cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with metabolic syndrome and hypercholesterolemia in a randomized trial. Nutrition and Metabolism, 2008

Subjects with elevated LDL cholesterol and metabolic syndrome benefit from supplementation with soy protein, phytosterols, hops rho iso-alpha-acids, and Acacia nilotica proanthocyanidins. Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 2010

A mediterranean-style low-glycemic-load diet improves variables of metabolic syndrome in women, and addition of a phytochemical-rich medical food enhances benefits on lipoprotein metabolism.  Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 2011

Eating Nuts Linked to Healthier, Longer Life – Harvard Health Publications

A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Duke University, 2004

Persistent Metabolic Adaptation 6 Years AFter “The Biggets Loser” Competition. Obesity Journal, March 2016.



Bibliography for Article and Presentation

“Emerging Concepts in Obesity”

by Robert Woodbury, MD  April, 2014

Centers for Disease Control. Obesity trends 2010

Ryan, Woods, and Seeley “Central nervous system mechanisms linking consumption of palatable high-fat diets to the defense of greater adiposity” Cell Metab. 2012 Feb 8;15(2) 137-149.

Seeley et al “Behavioral, endocrine, and hypothalamic responses to involuntary overfeeding.” Am J. PHysiology, Sept 1996 vol 271. 819-823.

Williams Trust Case Control Consortium. “Genomic-wade association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3000 shared controls”. Nature 2007; 447: 661-678

Frayling et al.  “A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity”.  Science 2007. 316. 889-894

Cecil JE.  “An obesity associated FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in children”  NEJM 2008: 359: 2558-2566

Diva, C. “Variation in the FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity”.  Nat. Genet. 2007: 39; 724-726

Andreasen, CH.  “Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation”.  Diabetes 2008; 57: 95-101

Hunt, SC. “Association of the FTO gene with BMI”.  Obesity Apr 2008 16(4) 902

Karra et al. “A link between FTO, ghrelin, and impaired brain food-cue responsivity.”  J. Clin. Inv. Aug 2013 123(8) 3539-3551

Tamashiro et al.  “Cloned mice have an obese phenotype not transmitted to their offspring.”  Nat Medicine Mar 2002 8(3)

Smith, Marceau, et al.  “Effects of maternal surgical weight loss in mothers on the intergenerational transmission of obesity”.  J. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 94(11) 4275

Kral, Marceau et al.  “Large maternal weight loss from obesity surgery prevents transmission of obesity to children who were followed for 2 to 18 years”.  Pediatric 2006 Dec 118 (6) e1644

Woodard, Morton, et al.  “Probiotics improve outcomes after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass surgery: A prospective randomized trial. “  J. Gastrointest Surgery 2009 13:1198-1204

Lio, Kaplan et al. “Conserved shifts in gut microbiome due to gastric bypass reduce host weight and adiposity”.  Sci Transl Med 2013 5:178

Molinaro et al. “Probiotics, prebiotics, energy balance, and obesity”.  Gastroenterol Clin N Am 2012 (41)843-854

Jumperts  “Energy balance studies reveal associations between gut microbes, caloric load, and nutrient absorption in humans. “  Am J Clin Nutr Jul 2011 94(1):58-65

Jayasena et al  “Role of gut hormones in obesity”.  Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of N AM 2008 37: 769-787

Mikalakis and le Roux  “Gut hormones and leptin: Impact on energy control and changes after bariatric surgery – what the future holds. “  Obes Surg 2012 22: 1648-1657

Gallwitz and Schmidt  “GLP-1 receptor knock-out causes glucose intolerance but no alterations of eating behavior”.  Z Gastroenterolgy 1997; 35: 655

Cohen et al.  “Effect of gastric bypass surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes and only mild obesity”.  Diabetes Care 2012; 35(7) 1420-1428

Sumithran et al.  “Long term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss”.  NEJM 2011 365(17) 1597-1604

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Mikalakis and leRoux.  “Gut hormones and leptin: Impact on energy control and changes after bariatric surgery, what the future holds.” Obes Surg 2012 22:1648-1657

Seeley and Kaplan. Presentation at Metabolic Applied Research Strategy Conference June 2010

Kaplan. “Effect of surgical and non-surgical weight loss on energy expenditure”. Presentation at Metabolic Applied Research Strategy, June 2012.  Based on much of his own unpublished and published work including: Mirshahi et al “The MC4R Allele is associated with better metabolic status and more weight loss after gastric bypass surgery. J Clin Endocrin Metab Dec 2011; 96(12) E2088-E2096

Hatoum et al.  “Melanocortin-4 receptor signaling is required for weight loss after gastric bypass surgery” J. Clin Endocrinolgy Metab 2012

Periera, et al. “Effects of a low glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss. JAMA. Nov 24, 2004. vol 292 #20

Stylopoulous et al  “Roux-en-Y gastric bypass enhances energy expenditure and extend lifespan in diet-induced obese rats”.  Obesity 2009; 17(10): 1839-1847

Shin et al.  “Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss, and energy expenditure after roux-en-y gastric bypass surgery in high fat fed obese rats.”  Obesity surg Apr 2013; 23(4) 531-540


Our Favorite Books

“Eat Drink and be Healthy” Walt Willett

“KMD: Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet” Steve Parker

“Omnivore’s Dilemma” Michael Pollan

“Bloog Sugar Solution” Mark Hyman

“Wheat Belly” William Davis

“Changing for Good”

“Food, Inc.” Karl Weber


Our Favorite Cookbooks

“Practical Paleo” Diane Sanfilippo

“Against All Grain” Danielle Walker

“Nom Nom Paleo” Michelle Tam